C-0013 - Non-root containers

Non-root containers

Framework

NSA, ArmoBest

Description of the the issue

Container engines allow containers to run applications as a non-root user with non-root group membership. Typically, this non-default setting is configured when the container image is built. . Alternatively, Kubernetes can load containers into a Pod with SecurityContext:runAsUser specifying a non-zero user. While the runAsUser directive effectively forces non-root execution at deployment, NSA and CISA encourage developers to build container applications to execute as a non-root user. Having non-root execution integrated at build time provides better assurance that applications will function correctly without root privileges.

Related resources

CronJob, DaemonSet, Deployment, Job, Pod, ReplicaSet, StatefulSet

What does this control test

Verify if runAsUser and runAsGroup are set to a user id greater than 999. Check that the allowPrivilegeEscalation field is set to false. Check all the combinations with PodSecurityContext and SecurityContext (for containers).

Remediation

If your application does not need root privileges, make sure to define the runAsUser or runAsGroup under the PodSecurityContext and use user ID 1000 or higher. Do not turn on allowPrivlegeEscalation bit and make sure runAsNonRoot is true.

Example

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: security-context-demo
spec:
  securityContext:
    runAsUser: 1000   # we make sure this is greater than 999 and
    runAsGroup: 3000  # This value is greater than 999
    fsGroup: 2000
  containers:
  - name: sec-ctx-demo
    image: busybox
    command: [ "sh", "-c", "sleep 1h" ]
    securityContext:
      allowPrivilegeEscalation: false  #lastly, we check this is set to false

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